There are many types of investment bonds in the market. Each type of investment bond has its own feature, which make them unique. It is very important to know the type of investment bond featured benefits. If an investment bond feature benefits the investor, then the investment has lower risk, so as the yield, and its price should be higher. In the other way round, If an investment bond feature benefits the issuer, then the investment has higher risk and yield, and its price should be lower. Therefore, as an investor, once we know who benefits from the feature, then we stand a better investment position whether to pay more or less for the type of investment bond before investing. Below are some of the most common bonds in the market.
Government bonds – are issued by the monetary authority of a country. At the time of issue, government bonds have maturity period from as short as one year to as long as 20 years.
Corporate bonds – are issued by corporations, mainly bought and sold by private and public institutions. They offer limited interest from retail investors.
Secured bonds – are backed by some specified assets such as mortgages or account receivables for investors to be convinced to park with their money. For example, a mortgage backed secured bond bundles mortgage, and then sells investors the right to receive the payments that consumers make on those mortgage loans.
Unsecured bonds – or sometimes called debentures are the most commonly issued type of investment bond. Although it may sound risky, they are generally not. They are backed by the issuer’s credit quality. In general, the higher the issuer’s credit quality, the higher the chance the borrower will make the payment to investors as promised.
Therefore, the investor’s risk is reduced. Debentures are issued by high credit quality corporations and institutions, and they are often more highly rated than secured, asset backed investment bonds.
Convertible bonds – are hybrid investment which contains a bond and a stock. If an interest rate risen, the bond will fall in value. However, investor can still benefit from the risen stock price by converting it to common stock. If an investor choose not to exercise the convertible, the investor can benefit from the bond’s interest income until the its maturity. These types of investment bond is suitable for investors with low risk profile, and seek for regular income with downside protection against falling share prices. Convertible bonds rate of return is lower than non-convertible bonds.
High yield bonds – as the name suggested, pay higher interest rates to investors. This types of investment bonds’ grade is lower, and are issued by emerging market economies such as those good companies which fallen on bad economy times. Therefore, they are riskier than investment graded bonds.
Zero-coupon bonds – pay no coupon interest during the tenure of the bond. But, the coupon interest is accumulated and paid in one lump sum at the time of maturity. This types of investment bonds are normally sold at a discount.
Floating-rate bonds – or name floaters, is a type of investment bond which periodically adjust the coupon interest rates base on the current market interest rates. If the market interest rates risen, the coupon interest rate will be adjusted to higher. If the market interest rates fallen, the coupon interest rate will be adjusted to lower.
Callable bonds – is riskier and offer a higher rate of return. The issuers have the right to call back the bond anytime and repay its debt before maturity. This occasion normally happens when interest rates fall, the issuers will call back the bond and reissue another bond at a lower rate of interest.
Appreciate the knowledge of investment, understand the investment psychology, and we shall be on the right path to wealth building and wealth accumulation.
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